St Helena Online

Tag: national archives

War papers reveal Thatcher’s fighting talk over Ascension

Newly-released secret papers have revealed how Margaret Thatcher had to stand her ground over Britain’s right to use Ascension Island as an air base during the Falklands War.

America’s senior diplomat planned to tell Argentina that UK use of the South Atlantic island had been “restricted” by the United States.

But the tough-speaking Prime Minister firmly insisted: “It’s our island.”

The US built one of the world’s longest runways on Ascension during World War Two, and in the late 1950s negotiated a lease to use the island as an American base.

The newly-disclosed British papers – released under a 30-year rule – record American negotiations with Argentina before and after the invasion of the Falklands in April, 1982.

Even as the British task force sailed to re-take the islands, US Secretary of State Alexander Haig flew back and forth across the Atlantic as a go-between, trying to avert a full-on military conflict.

Those talks depended on America appearing to be treating both sides equally. But press reports revealed how the US was supporting Britain behind the scenes, invoking fury in Buenos Airies.

Haig telephoned Thatcher to read a proposed statement designed to rescue the talks – with a specific reference to Ascension Island, which was then officially a dependency of St Helena.

A BBC radio programme, UK Confidential, used actors to show how Thatcher browbeat Mr Haig. The dialogue – recorded at the time – ran:

HAIG: “Now what we have done is put together a statement…”

THATCHER: “Yes, go ahead, read it to me.”

HAIG: “I would say that since the onset of the crisis, the US has not acceded to requests that would go beyond the scope of our customary patterns of co-operation. British use of US facilities on the United Kingdom island of Ascension has been restricted accordingly.”

THATCHER: “Oh, now that’s a bit devastating – ”

HAIG: “Now, we have looked very carefully at our agreement on this and we feel that that statement has been and remains justified -”

THATCHER: “Part of your statement would have an extremely adverse reaction here. It’s been said in the House of Commons, quite rightly, that I have done everything possible to   support President Reagan and the US government, on every single occasion that they have asked for help; and the moment we need your help you aren’t there. We just don’t receive it. I don’t like phrase, ‘you have not acceded to requests beyond the scope of the customary pattern’ … because it looks as if we have made them and you have turned them down.”

HAIG: “I told them that if they asked, we would turn them down; if you asked while this negotiation was under way, we would have to refrain as well.”

THATCHER: “…the suggestion that we are to be treated in the same way as a military junta… with a very bad record of human rights, I think will cause problems here. It will make it extremely difficult to continue the good relations that have hitherto existed.”

HAIG: “Well, I certainly understand that concern and that’s why I read this to you -”

THATCHER: “Well, let’s get Ascension out of it altogether, because it’s our island. I made myself clear, did I?”

HAIG: “Yes.”

Ascension was subsequently used as a major staging post for ships, troops and equipment en route to the conflict zone, as one point becoming the world’s busiest airport.

St Helenians who were based on the island at the time recall aircraft being parked up on every available piece of ground.

LISTEN: UK Confidential – BBC Radio 4 (available to UK listeners until 3 January 2012)

LINK: National Archives: newly-released Falklands papers

Maggie’s shock at Falklands Invasion – and how Britain nearly agreed to fly the Argentinian flag in Stanley

De-classified documents have revealed the British government’s shock when it realised Argentina was about to invade the Falkland Islands.

Only two days before troops walked through Stanley did Thatcher and her advisers realise what was about to happen.

In October 1982 she gave evidence behind closed doors to the Falkland Islands Review Committee, set up to analyse what happened.

The transcript is among the papers newly released by the National Archives office at Kew under a 30-year disclosure rule.

In it, Mrs Thatcher says: “I thought that they would be so absurd and ridiculous to invade the Falklands that I did not think it would happen.”

When she was shown raw intelligence suggestion an invasion was imminent, she said, it was “the worst, I think, moment of my life.”

She also said: “That night no-one could tell me whether we could retake the Falklands – no-one. We did not know – we did not know.”

The papers also show that Britain held secret talks near Geneva in the late 1970s. It suggested transferring the islands to Argentina, with the UK retaining sovereignty over the people who lived on them – “for, say, 200 years”.

Foreign minister Nicholas Ridley told an Argentinian military leader: “You would have increasing opportunities of influencing the islanders and opening their minds to cooperation.

“You could fly Argentinian flags on public buildings, and perhaps appoint a high commissioner.”

The Argentinian negotiator said his government had considered something similar, saying, “If Britain were to hand over the islands to Argentina, my government would not extend the same regulations to the islands as the mainland. They would have their own laws, civil service, etc, a bit like Tierre del Fuego.”

The “leaseback” idea was greeted with reluctance in the islands, and hostility in the UK parliament, according to UK Confidential, a special BBC radio programme broadcast on 28 December 2012, the day the papers were released.

On another occasion, Sir Roger Bannister – the first man to run a mile in less than four minutes – reported on meeting a US academic who’d suggested partitioning the islands, with Britain retaining West Falkland while Argentina kept the East – where most of the population lived.

The UK said dividing it the other way round “could be slightly less unattractive.”

The released archives also include a letter to Margaret Thatcher from Sir Rex Hunt, the British governor who stood up to the invaders, and returned to resume his post after the liberation. He wrote:

“I should like to extend my personal thanks and say how grateful I am to you for sending me back to Stanley to finish the job I started two and a half years ago.

“My wife and I were honoured and privileged to be invited to your box at the Trooping of the Colour [the Queen’s birthday ceremony].

“Nothing would give us greater pleasure than to return that hospitality by having you and Mr Thatcher to stay with us at Government House, Stanley.”

The offer was taken up.

Falklands mourn Sir Rex Hunt, hero of the ’82 invasion
I’m not surrendering: voice of the late Sir Rex Hunt


UK Confidential – BBC Radio 4 (available to UK listeners until 3 January 2012)

National Archives: newly-released Falklands papers
Thatcher was ready for Falkland Islands deal, papers show – Guardian website
Falklands invasion ‘surprised’ Thatcher – BBC News